Delete this section if there is no common name.
General colour of the males and females light to dark brown.
Male: Head bearing two large compound eyes and three
ocelli. Antennae 26-segmented. Pronotum approximately 3 mm. long,
surface uneven, narrower than head. Mesonotum approximately 13
mm. long, two rows of prominent dorsal tubercles numbering in all from
8 to 13, several slightly raised lateral tubercles, narrower than the
pronotum. Metanotum approximately 7 mm. long, without tubercles. wider
than mesonotum. Prothoracic legs bearing no spines, femora of mesothoracic
legs carry spines along their length with two large spines at distal end.
Spines evident along femora and tibiae of metathoracic legs and distal end
of each. Tegmina brown, approximately 10 mm. long. Hindwings approximately
35 to 40 mm. long extend over fifth and sometimes part of sixth abdominal
segments. Ten abdominal segments. Genital lobes appear as enlargement
on ventral surface of segments VIII and IX. Tenth segment modified to
form claspers which bear spines. Cerci about inch long, leaf-like.
Female: Head bearing two large compound eyes and three
ocelli. Antennae 25-28-segmented, shorter than those of male. Pronotum
approximately 5 to 7 mm. long, no tubercles present, slightly narrower
than head. Mesonotum 20 to 23 mm. long with two rows of dorsal tubercles
and several lateral tubercles. Tubercles more prominently raised than in
male. Metanotum 7 to 8 mm. long, non-tuberculate. Pronotum, mesonotum
and metanotum of equal width. Prothoracic legs bearing spines along, and
at distal end of femora. Mesothoracic legs with spines along femora and
tibiae, as well as at distal end of these segments. Spines also present
along and at distal extremities of femora and tibiae of metathoracic
legs. Tegmina brown, approximately 13-15 mm. long. Hindwings 25 to 30
mm. long, apices extending almost to posterior margin of third abdominal
segment. Ten abdominal segments. Operculum which covers genital valves
arises from segment VIII, its apex extending beyond segment X and located
between the cerci. Cerci about inch long, leaf-like.
Lifespan: nymphs take 4 months to mature, the adult stage a further 2 months.
Egg approximately 3 mm. long and 2 mm. in diameter at broadest
point. Roughly elliptical in shape, somewhat wider in region of micropyle,
distinctly flattened at both ends. When freshly laid, glistening black
in appearance. Pale grey area extending over and around micropylar
area. Smooth edged grey pigment appearing to overlie the black. Egg
smooth, although microscopic examination shows it to be uneven. Black
raised ridge in the shape of a Y surrounds the micropylar orifice at
non-opercular end of egg.
The eggs of this phasmatid are dropped on to the forest floor by the
female during summer and normally hatch in August and Septempber of the
same year. There are six (male) or seven (female) nymphal instars,
the nymphs reaching maturity between mid-December and mid-January.
Unfertilized eggs of C. tessulatus produced both males and
females, establishing deuterotokous parthenogenesis for this species.
C. tessulatus eggs will not hatch in dry conditions.
(Campbell & Hadlington, 1967)
arborial, near the top of hosts plants (not necesarily top of canopy)
This species not only eats
Eucalyptus species, but attacks tree species belonging to
unrelated genera and different families. Food preferences were not
studied, although in the field Eucalyptus maculata Hook.,
E. paniculata Sm., E. propinqua Deane and Maiden,
E. gummifera (Gaertn.) Hochr., E. resinifera Sm.,
E. punctata D.C., E. triantha Link, E. pilularis
Sm., and Casuarina torulosa Ait. were severely defoliated.
Syncarpia laurifolia Ten., and Acacia floribunda (Vent.)
Willd. were also eaten.
In the laboratory this species has been fed successfully on Acacia
mollissima Willd., Angophora costata Domin., E. dives,
E. radiata and E. andreana.
(Campbell & Hadlington)
Ctenomorpha chronus is physically very similar, the best
differentiator is the shape of the eggs.
Forrestry Commission oif N.S.W. reared this species for many years
while studying it.
C. tessulatus eggs will not hatch in dry conditions.
The presence of sand or litter helps the young phasmatid
to completely free its metathoracic legs - if the eggs are placed loosely
on the surface the nymph frequently cannot accomplish this and usually
dies still attached to the shell.
Partongenic in captivity. Eggs hatch both male and female.
PSG notes indicate the following foodplants have been used successfully
in captivity: Brample, Eucalyptus, Raspberry, Rose.
For a stick insect with body length 89mm, to keep 2 adult females,
you need a cage at least 400mm high, 180mm deep and 180mm wide.
inhabits the undergrowth in
forests in south-east Queensland and northern New South Wales.
This species has occurs in coastal forests from 200-2,000 ft altitude,
occasional specimens being found near the coast at lower altitudes.
(Campbell & Hadlington)
NE coastal, SE coastal, QLD, NSW
Not endangered. Know to occur in plague proportions from time to time.
Balderson, J., Rentz,
D.C.F. and Roach, A.M.E. (1998).
Houston, W.K.K. & Wells, A. (1998) (eds)
Zoological Catalogue of Australia.
Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Blattodea, Isoptera, Mantodea, Dermaptera,
Phasmatodea, Embioptera, Zoraptera.
Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, Australia (ISBN 0643 06035 9).
pp. 347 - 376.
Bedford, G.O. (1978).
Biology and ecology of the Phasmatodea.
Ann. Rev. Entomol. 23: 125-149
Campbell, K.G., 1961.
The effects of forest fires on three species of Stick Insects
(Phasmatidae Phasmatodea) occurring in plagues in forest areas of
Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales,
Campbell, K. G., Hadlington, P., 1967.
The biology of the three species of phasmatids which occur in
plague numbers in forests of south eastern Australia.
Forestry Commission NSW Res. Note No. 20, 38 pp.
Clark, J.T. (1976).
The eggs of stick insects (Phasmida): a review with
descriptions of the eggs of eleven species.
Syst. Ent. 1: 95-105.
Goode, J. (1980).
Insects of Australia.
Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
ISBN 0 207 13427 8.
Gray, G.R. (1835).
‘Synopsis of the Species of Insects Belonging to
the Family of Phasmidae.’ 48pp.
(Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green and Longman: London.)
Hadlington, P.W., and Hoschke, F. (1959).
Observations on the ecology of the
phasmatid Ctenomorphodes tessulata (Gray).
Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales.
[I already have this one, except for plates 5 and 6, and possibly
page 159 (references). He also refers to figure 3 in the text, but none
appears in my copy; it may be on page 159.]
Hadlington, P.W., and Johnston, J.A. (1982).
An Introduction to Australian Insects.
University of New South Wales Press,
ISBN 0 86840 465 9,
Heather, N.W. (1965).
Studies on female genitalia of Queensland Phasmida,
Journal of the Entomological Society of Queensland,
Key, K.H.L. (1957).
Kentromorphic phases in three species of Phasmatodea.
Australian Journal of Zoology 5: 247-284
Korboot, K. (1961)
Observations on life histories of
Acrophylla tessellata Gray and
Extatosoma tiaratum Macleay (Phasmida).
University of Queensland Papers Department of Entomology,
The University of Queeensland Pres, St. Lucia, 24th August.
Rainbow, W.J. (1897).
Catalogue of the described Phasmidae of Australia.
Records of the Australian Museum, 3(2), 37-44.
[Note that he made a mistake re Extatosoma popa and E. tiaratum
Gurney, A.B. (1947).
Notes on some remarkable Australasian walkingsticks, including a
synopsis of the Genus Extatosoma (Orthoptera: Phasmatidae).
Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 40(3): 373-396.
Readshaw, J. L. (1965).
A theory of Phasmatid outbreak release.
Australian Journal of Zoology, 13: 475-90
Rentz, D.C.F (1996).
Phasmatodea: Leaf and Stick Insects,
Tepper, J.G.O. (1902).
List of the Described Genera and Species of the Australian and Polynesian
Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 26: 278-287.
Tepper, J.G.O. (1905).
Insects collected in the North-western Region of South Australia Proper
by H. Basedow; with Descriptions of New Species of Mantidæ and
Phasmidæ, No. 2.
Transactions of the Royal Society South Australia, 29: 237-245.
Vickery, V.R. (1983).
Catalogue of Australian stick insects (Phasmida,
Phasmatodea, Phasmatoptera, or Cheleutoptera). CSIRO
Australian Division of Entomology Technical Paper, No. 20, 15 pp.
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Phasmid Study Group
This is PSG species 155.
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This page was last changed 20-Sep-2006.