This subfamily, also known as Land Lobsters, is mainly Papuan in
distribution, but a few species have been recorded from the Cape York
Wingless; occur on herbacious vegetation and grasses.
These species are rather small, dun-coloured, apterous phasmatids
with short antennae.
This subfamily is mainly African in distribution,
represented in Australian by three outlier species.
This is a prominent group with an Australia-wide
distribution. The species are mainly large, winged and
This subfamily occurrs mainly on the islands to the north of
Australia, and has one Australian representative.
This is the most characteristically Australian group, with an
Australia-wide distribution. It comprises mainly large, winged species,
which resemble leaves rather than twigs, although they are not markedly
This subfamily is mainly Papuan and Melanesian in distribution, and is
represented by two little-known species from Queensland.
The Phasmatidae family has a large number of unplaced genera.
They have been grouped here until a correct and agreed taxonomy appears
in the literature.
Typical stick insects.
About 95 Australian species are known.
Only 8 of the 10 sub-families are represented in Australia.
The distribution map is a hot-linked index. By clicking
on a highlighted area of the map, you may obtain a species list for that
area, within this family.
Balderson, J., Rentz,
D.C.F. and Roach, A.M.E. (1998).
Houston, W.K.K. & Wells, A. (1998) (eds)
Zoological Catalogue of Australia.
Archaeognatha, Zygentoma, Blattodea, Isoptera, Mantodea, Dermaptera,
Phasmatodea, Embioptera, Zoraptera.
Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing, Australia (ISBN 0643 06035 9).
pp. 347 - 376.
Bradley, J.C., and Galil, B.S. (1977).
The taxonomic arrangement of the Phasmatodea with keys to the subfamilies
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington,
Gurney, A.B. (1947).
Notes on some remarkable Australasian walkingsticks, including a
synopsis of the Genus Extatosoma (Orthoptera: Phasmatidae).
Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 40(3): 373-396.
Key, K.H.L. (1970).
Phasmatodea (Stick-insects). pp. 394-404 in CSIRO (ed.) The
Insects of Australia. A textbook for students and research workers.
Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, Vol. 1, 1st Edn.
Kirby, W.F. (1904).
A Synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera. 8vo. Vol. 1. Orthoptera,
Euplexoptera, Cursoria, et Gressoria (Forficulidæ, Hemimeridæ,
Blattidæ, Mantidæ, Phasmidæ). London: Longmans
& Co. x 501 pp.
Latreille, P.A. (1817).
Les Crustacés, Les Arachnides et Les Insectes,
being volume three of
Cuvier, G.L.C.F.D. (1817).
Le Régne animal distribué d'après son Organisation,
pour servir de Base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'Introduction
à l'Anatomie comparée. Five volumes. Paris.
Rentz, D.C.F (1996).
Phasmatodea: Leaf and Stick Insects,