GEORGE ROBERT GRAY,
SEC. ENT. SOC. LOND. & MEM. SOC. D'ENT. FR.
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, No. 22, EAST STREET, QUEEN SQUARE:
SOLD ALSO BY MESSRS. LONGMAN AND CO., PATERNOSTER ROW.
My thanks to the helpful staff of the Australian Museum Research Library who generously made their copy of this book available for me to photograph, and from which this material was produced.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS
THE DUKE OF SUSSEX, K.G.
PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY.
WHOSE PATRONAGE, EVER LIBERALLY BESTOWED
ON THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE IN ALL ITS BRANCHES,
HAS BEEN ESPECIALLY EXTENDED
TO THE PRESENT WORK,
THE FOLLOWING PAGES
ARE GRATEFULLY AND RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS'S
OBLIGED AND HUMBLE SERVANT,
THE Author, impelled by a strong desire of adding to the knowledge of the Natural History of so remote and highly interesting a continent as that of Australia, and in the hope of bringing its Entomologica1 treasures before the scientific public, has been induced to undertake the present Work. Although so long a British possession, scarcely one tenth part of its natural objects (so peculiarly its own, and therefore so well worthy of attention,) have hitherto been made known and amateurs and men of science are equally destitute of the means of naming the numerous collections of Insects which are now so frequently brought from that country. To obviate this difficulty, by affording facilities for the naming of such collections, is evidently a desirable object.
Much of this difficulty originates in the circumstance that the descriptions and figures of such insects as have been made known, are scattered through various works, only to be acquired at great expense. A list of these may not be unacceptable here, as showing what has been previously published upon the subject.
1792. It appears that Fabricius was the first author who noticed the insects of New Holland. In his “Entomologia Systematica” he
Olivier published, about the same time, his “Entomologie, ou Histoire Naturelle des Insectes,” which contains a few figures of the Banksian insects, described by the former author.
1802. “Descrptions of some singular Insects [from New Holland], by Charles Schreiber,” were published in the Transactions of the Linnean Society.
1805. Mr. Donovan published his Work entitled “An Epitome of the Natural History of the Insects of New Holland,” certainly one of the most elegant works on Entomology which had then appeared in this country; and the only one, up to the present period, which treats solely on the insects generally of that part of the world. In this he engraved one hundred and fifty-three species, some of which had been previously described by Fabricius, although others were then for the first time noticed.
Mr. Lewin also published his “Prodromus Entomology. [sic!] Natural History of Lepidopterous Insects of New South Wales;” all of which, except one, are nocturnal insects. This work is of great utility and interest, on account of the figure of each species being accompanied with those of its larva and chrysalis, - an example which it is to be hoped other residents will follow for the benefit of science.
1808. “Description of Notoclea, a new Genus of Coleopterous Insects from New Holland, by Thomas Marsham, Esq., Tr. L.S.” was
1814. Dr. Leach, in the first two volumes of his “Zoological Miscellany,” gives descriptions and figures of various species of the insects of Australia.
1817. Descriptions and engravings of several Australian insects were inserted by the late profound entomologist Latreille, in Cuvier's “Règne Animal.” In the same year also appeared Schonherr's “Appendix ad Synonymiam Insectorum, sistens Descriptiones novarum Specierum;” which, in addition, contains descriptions of some new species of Australian Coleopterous insects.
1818. The learned entomologist of this country, the Rev. William Kirby, M.A. published two papers in the Transactions of the Linnean Society. The first of these he termed “A Century of Insects.” In the course of this he described several Australian Coleoptera. The other is styled “A Description of several new species of Insects collected in New Holland by Robert Brown, Esq. F.R.S.” Both these papers are accompanied by figures of the most remarkable species.
1825. Many years afterwards M. le Comte Dejean commenced publishing his “Species général des Coleoptères,” which contains descriptions of various new species of Australian Carabidæ.
The Zoological Atlas of the “Voyage de la Coquille autour du Monde, par le Chev. J. Duperrey,” was also commenced during the same year, and some Australian insects are figured in it by M. Guerin; but of these, the descriptions have not yet made their appearance.
1826. The “Appendix of Natural History annexed to Captain P. P.
Various species will be found scattered through the following works: “Encyclopédie Méthodique,” “Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles,” “Zoological Journal,” “Magasin d'Entomologie;” and the author of the present publication, whilst engaged in illustrating Griffith's Translation of Cuvier's “Règne Animal,” has there introduced several species of Australian insects.
I have thus presented to my readers a list of all the Works which have treated more or less upon the Insects of Australia. If all these volumes were in their possession, they would still find that their library was very incomplete, when consulted for the purpose of assisting them in naming their collections. It therefore occurred to me, that were I to commence a Work that should not only embrace all the species hitherto described, but in the course of which I should introduce those which are new, and form one general collection, I might hope for that patronage from the public without which it certainly could not proceed.
I propose to publish one Part in about every six months, to contain eight Plates, constituting the figures to one or more monographs, but not to refigure such as have been previously engraved by Mr. Donovan; and that each Part shall be complete in itself.
It is my intention to subjoin English descriptions and Latin specific characters, and to avoid making the Work too technical for the general observer; but to form it upon such a principle, that it may be understood by the amateur as well as the scientific student of Entomology.
I beg further to state, that I should not have undertaken this Work had it not been for the kindness of several individuals, well known as possessing the finest collections in this country; to whom I now return my grateful thanks for the assistance they have rendered me, and for the liberal manner in which they have thrown open their cabinets to my use.
In an especial manner I am proud of naming, -
JOHN GEORGE CHILDREN, Esq., of the British Museum, to whom I am also indebted for the use of the richest Entomological library in England;
Mrs. CHILDREN, who has with the greatest kindness allowed me the use of the splendid collection of Lepidopterous insects in her possession;
And the Rev. FREDERICK THOMAS HOPE, whom I beg leave to thank for his valuable assistance, and the loan of many unique insects in his fine collection.
I have also to offer my thanks to various gentlemen whose names will be noticed in the course of publication.
Perhaps it may not be amiss to state that of the species described in the First Part of this “Entomology of Australia,” three only have been previously noticed, and these are inserted in two distinct Works. Of these, two only have been before figured. Hence it appears how limited is our present knowledge, and it is obvious that the Work now brought before the public is not an unnecessary and uncalled for labour; as supplying a great and acknowledged deficiency, it is hoped that it will deserve the attention and support of all lovers of Entomological Science.
Before closing this Introduction, the Author thinks it a duty to state
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.
Right Hon. the DOWAGER COUNTESS OF GUILDFORD.
The Right Hon. LADY SUSAN NORTH.
The Right Hon. LADY GEORGINA NORTH.
Mrs. CHILDREN, British Museum.
J. G. CHILDREN, Esq.
Rev. F. T. HOPE, Upper Seymour Street. 3 copies.
Mrs. ATKINS, Walbrook.
J. P. ATKINS, Esq.
EDWARD GRIFFITH, Esq., Featherstone Buildings.
A. MELLY, Esq., Manchester.
THOMAS NORRIS, Esq., Redvales, Bury, Lancashire.
Mr. JOHN TURNER, Commercial Road. 2 copies.
Mrs. OGILBY, York Street, Portman Square.
Major General HARDWICKE, Lodge, South Lambeth.
Mrs. GRAY, Woburn Square.
THOMAS BELL, Esq., New Broad Street.
Rev. WILLIAM KIRBY, M.A., Barham, Suffolk.
FRANCIS WALKER, Esq., Bedford Square.
CHARLES CURTIS, Montpelier Square.
JOHN EDWARD GRAY, Esq., British Museum.
*** This List will be continued in the Second Part.
ENTOMOLOGY OF AUSTRALIA.
THE insects now brought before the public, form one of the most curious and singular families of the Orthopterous order, and are termed Phasmida, or Spectres. They belong to the first section, Cursoria, or Walkers, and differ very much from the other family of the same section, termed Mantidæ, or Mantes, in having their fore legs similar in form to the four hind ones; whilst those of the latter are raptorious; that is to say, having the fore femora or thighs very strong, projecting straight forwards, with a channel for the reception of the tibiæ or shanks, which are inflexed, and both armed with a double series of spurs. They differ from the second section, Saltatoria, or Leapers, in having their hind legs of moderate length, and not formed for leaping; and also in the tegmina or fore wings being much shorter than the wings. The mouth of the insects of this order is provided with four unequal palpi or feelers; the two fore or maxillary feelers are longest, and five-jointed ; the two hind or labial feelers are shorter than the others, and three-jointed; they are generally compressed, with the last joints of all truncated at their ends.
Like all the Orthopterous insects, they undergo three active changes after they are hatched. In their first or larva stage they are of a long cylindrical form, with six thick legs, and without any appearance of wings, which makes them so similar to the apterous or wingless species, forming the last division
The habits and instincts of this strange and highly interesting family are as yet very little known. It has been recorded by a previous author, that they live on vegetable food, and that the females deposit their eggs in the earth. But Allan Cunningham, Esq., the botanist, has kindly informed me, that the reason why they are so rarely met with, is owing to their solitary and sedate habits, they being always found single, or rarely two in company, crawling slowly up the underwood and shrubs, &c., on which they seem to pass their existence in the hot summer months, feeding on the young glutinous or gummy trees, and that they disappear perhaps for two or three years together.
Linnæus placed the Spectres with the Mantes, in which he was followed by Gmelin; but Stoll, when delineating the species which were in the Dutch collections, proposed to subdivide them into a separate genus, under the denomination of Phasma, which word Fabricius and Lichtenstein also use; while the latter has divided them into two grand divisions; viz, those which are wingless, and those with wings in their perfect state. He has also subdivided them into several minor divisions. Lately, M. Serville has published a new arrangement for the insects of this family; but he seems to have been unacquainted with those of Australia. He appears to divide the winged species into two divisions; viz, those with distinct stemmata or eyelets, and those with indistinct.
One of the most striking geographical divisions of these insects is, that most of the winged Australian species possess two abdominal appendages or leaflets at the tip of the abdomen, which vary in length and form; the females of some of the Indian species has three broad short ones, while in the males, as in those of America, these organs are entirely wanting. The males of most of the species of this family, taken generally, are also armed at the tip of the abdomen with a pair of forceps of various length and strength; even the males of some apterous or wingless species possess this last-mentioned appendage, but in a less degree.
Before entering on the descriptions of the species, it will be right to state that the colours of these insects are very difficult to describe properly from preserved specimens; for those which are of a fine green colour when living, are liable to change to a brownish yellow, and if placed in spirit of wine, to dark brown. It has been recorded that when the pin is pierced through the thorax of some species of this family, they emit a yellow liquid, which if it touches any part of the insect's body will turn it yellow.
|* The thorax or trunk of insects is divided into three distinct segments. The first is termed the prothorax, or fore segment of the trunk; the second mesothorax, or middle segment of the trunk; the third metathorax, or hind segment of the trunk: to each of these a separate pair of legs is affixed.|
The specimen was brought from Melville Island, and is now deposited in the Rev. F. T. Hope's collection.
The second figure represents the Margined-winged Slender Spectre, or Ctenomorpha marginipennis, Sp. 11, the body of which is of a blackish olivaceous; the mesothorax has a few scattered black rings, but that of the female is covered with sharp tubercies; the legs of this species are much longer than those of the last, and of a blackish olivaceous, with the four anterior thighs dentated, while the posterior legs are dentated throughout; the tegmina are yellowish green, with a broad white anterior margin; the wings arc of a brownish colour; the costal area yellowish green, with the basal half of the anterior margin white; the antennæ pale brown; the abdomen is dark olivaceous, with two very small leaflets at the tip.
The British Museum contains specimens of this species, which were brought by Mr. Hunter, (the surgeon who accompanied Captain King's voyages,) probably from the north-west coast; and the Rev. F. T. Hope is also in possession of this insect.
The figure is taken from a specimen in the collection of J. G. Children, Esq.; it is that of a female, brought to this country by A. Cunningham, Esq., who states that they are found on the brushes on the shores of Port Jackson, “north shore;” in the month of December. The British Museum however possesses two specimens, which Mr. Hunter deposited there; one of them is that of a male, and differs from the other sex in having a pair of forceps fixed at the tip of the abdomen; the leaflets also differ from those of the female in being broader at the tip than the base, while those of the female are of an equal width throughout.
The second figure is the Long-horned dirty Walking-stick, or Bacteria cœnosa, Sp. 13; it is that of a wingless species, and belongs to the last division; its colour is yellowish brown, with the tip of the abdomen green; the hypopygium is yellow; the legs are of moderate length, but rather darker in colour than the body, and hairy; the antennæ are very long and setaceous.
The Rev. F. T. Hope possesses the specimen from which the figure was taken, but it is uncertain from what part it was brought.
This figure was taken from a specimen in the collection of J. G. Children, Esq., which was brought home by Mr. Cunningham, who informs me that they are found in the same place as the Pink-winged species (Pl. II, fig. 1.). The British Museum also contains two specimens of this fine insect.
The second insect represented in the Plate is the Short-horned dirty Walking-stick, or Bacillus squalidus, Sp. 16, and differs very much in form from the others in this work ; the colour is of a dark sepia brown, with some white, and has much the appearance of being scaly; the thorax and abdomen are keeled down their centre. The latter is short with the base depressed, while the tip is compressed; the legs are rather short, with elevated lines: but the four posterior thighs have three teeth, placed at equal distances on the upper sides.
This curious insect is in the possession of the Rev. F. T. Hope.
The pupa has the body similar in colour to the older stage, but it has the appearance of being spotted; the rudimental wings are decidedly spotted with white.
This splendid species, Mr. Cunningham informs me, is found on shrubs in the scrubby parts of the Colony, in the month of December; it is very solitary in its habits, and is locally termed “Walking Straw, or Animated Stick.”
This species was brought from Melville Island, and is in the possession of the Rev. F. T. Hope.
The second species is the Chronus tailed Spectre, Diura Chronus, Sp. 6. The wings of this insect are small and black, more or less obscurely spotted with white; the costal area is green, irregularly marked with black, but with the base of a lighter colour, and the black markings more distinct; the head, prothorax and legs are light pinkish brown, the latter very much dentated; the mesothorax, tegmina, abdomen and leaflets, are blackish green; the former has small black tubercles; the abdomen is spotted with black at the tip of each segment, which is also somewhat dilated, while the leaflets are rather long and dentated.
The pupa is similar to the older stage; but the rudimental wings have the appearance of being spotted with white.
This insect is often found in collections, and I believe is confined to Van Diemen's Land.
The figure is taken from a specimen in the collection of the British Museum, and I believe was brought by Mr. Hunter; it had been previously described by Dr. Leach in his “Zoological Miscellany.”
The second figure is the Typhæus tailed Spectre, or Diura Typhæus, Sp. 8; the tegmina of which are brownish green, with a red longitudinal line down the centre, their fore-half white, with the outer ridge pale blue; the wings are yellow, with their summit dusky; the costal area brownish green tinged with red; the fore-margin and near the base white, with the outer ridge pale blue, but the base is purplish; the head, prothorax, mesothorax and the legs, are red; the mesothorax is covered with minute tubercles; the four hind legs are strongly dentated; the abdomen is yellowish green tinged with red; the leaflets rather short, and red.
The British Museum contains the fine specimen from which the drawing was taken.
In the Rev. F. T. Hope's collection, who is uncertain from what part of Australia.
The second figure is remarkable for the peculiar form of the wings, and is called the Rose-winged tailed Spectre, or Diura roseipennis, Sp. 10. The wings are very small, with the costal area projecting slightly beyond, and pointed, and are of a pale pink; while the costal area is green, with a yellow base; the tegmina, body and the legs, are rich verditer green; the abdomen has the appearance of three narrow longitudinal yellow lines, one placed in the centre, with one on each side; the mesothorax is of moderate length, very narrow, gradually wider posteriorly, but keeled down the middle, with the sides sloping and margined, also covered with minute tubercles; the antennæ are extremely short and thick; the legs moderate and simple.
The specimen is in the British Museum, and I believe was brought by Mr. Hunter, probably from the north-west coast.
The third is the Brown short-horned Walking-stick, or Bacillus brunneus, Sp. 15, which is also a wingless species, in general yellowish brown, rather lighter on the mesotborax, but the metathorax is tinged with red; the legs are rather short, and very much dentated beneath the thighs.
This insect was sent from the Swan River Colony by Alexander Collie, Esq., to Mr. Children, in whose possession it now remains.
The second is the MacLeay's dilated-bodied Spectre, or Extatosoma tiaratum, Sp.2. Its general colour is brownish green, but it is much thicker in proportion than the last; the abdomen has rows of laminæ on the upper surface, which are dentated and of a dark brownish black. It is also armed at the tip with a strong, sharp, curved, black claw; the prothorax as well as mesothorax are spined, the latter, which is somewhat triangular, only on the fore part ; the tegmina and wings are rudimental; the legs are very much dilated, the thigh and shank trigonal, but the margins of the dilatation dentated; the first joint of the fore feet is dilated, and erect.
Whether this insect be the pupa of another species, or the female of the preceding one, is matter of great doubt; but it will be seen that I have considered it as the former.
These curious insects are exceedingly rare, and are in the collection of the Rev. F. T. Hope. The latter species was first described by W. S. MacLeay, Esq., in Captain King's Voyages, and Mr. Cunningham has kindly informed me, that “they are found on the sapling gum-trees in the neighbourhood of Paramatta.”
A. Tegmina alæque in utroque sexu.
a. Mesothorax brevis. Antennæ mediocres, fœminæ breviores.
* Pedes dilatati.
α. Abdominis articuli 5. 6. 7. dilatati.... EXTATOSOMA.
1. P. E. Hopei. Pl. VIII. fig. 1.
Viride; mesothorace anticè angustato, spinis duabus; tegminibus brevibus, subovalibus, viridibus; areâ costali viridi, undato-fasciatâ; alis hyalinis, nigrescentibus, fasciis interruptis subalbidis; pedibus viridibus, nigro-fasciatis; tarsorum anticorum articulo primo elongato, vix dilatato.
2. P. E. tiaratum. Pl. VIII. fig. 2.
Viride; prothorace spinoso; mesothorace anticè angustato, subdepresso, spinis duabus, posticè dilatato, subtùs plano; metathorace subtùs plano, marginibus lateralibus denticulatis; tegminibus viridibus, subovatis, minutis; alarum rudimentis brevioribus; abdominis segmentis suprà laminis binis dentatis in medio armatis, marginibus lateralibus denticulatis; tarsorum anticorum articulo primo dilatato, erecto.
Phasma tiaratum, MacL. King's Voyage. ii. 455. tab. B. fig. 3. & 4.
** Femora quatuor posteriora tantùm dilatata.
α. Mesothorax triangularis; alæ magnæ.... TRIGONODERUS.
3. P. T. Childreni. Pl. III. fig. 1.
Capite prothoraceque albidis; mesothorace scabro, subflavo; tegminibus viridibus; alis hyalinis albis; nervis flavescentibus; areâ costali viridi, juxta basin flavâ, basi violascenti; abdomine sulphureo, marginibus lateralibus hypopygioque viridibus; foliolis duobus brevibus; pedibus glaucis.
*** Pedes spinosi, nec dilatati.
α. Mesothorax spinosus, angustatus; alæ magnæ.... PODACANTHUS.
4. P. P. Typhon. Pl. II. fig. 1.
Flavum; tegminibus viridibus, subtus basi roseis; alis hyalinis, albis; nervis roseis; areâ costali viridi, basi et subtus roseâ; abdomine flavo; foliolis duobus longis; pedibus rubro-albidis.
b. Mesothorax longus. Antennæ in utroque sexa æquales.
α. Corpus longum, cylindricum, abdominis foliola duo elongata.... DIURA.
5. P. D. Titan. Pl. IV.
Subcinereo-fuscum; mesothorace scabro; tegminibus nigro-viridibus, testaceo-maculatis, maculâ in marginis antici medio magnâ albâ; alis nigro-fuscis, albomaculatis; areâ costali ad basin rubrâ. nigro-maculatâ, ad apicem nigro-viridi testaceo-maculatâ; pedibus albo-cinereis, femoribus anticis trigonis angulo inferiori dentibus magnis, rufis, postico minoribus et superiori nullis; abdominis foliolis duobus brevibus, trigonis, dentatis.
Phasma Titan, MacL. King's Voyage. ii. 454.
6. P. D. Chronus. Pl. V. fig. 2.
Subnigro-viride; maris mesothorace scaberrimo, fœminæ scabro; tegminibus angustatis, brunneo-viridibus; nervis flavescentibus; alis nigris, obscurè albo-maculatis; areâ costali brunneo-viridi, basi nervisque flavescentibus, lineis irregularibus nigris; abdominis foliolis duobus longis; pedibus mediocribus, posticè dentatis.
7. P. D. Japetus. Pl. V. fig. 1.
Flavo-viride; prothorace mesothoraceque scaberrimis; tegminibus mediocribus;
8. P. D. typhæus. Pl. VI, fig. 2.
Brunneum; mesothorace vix scabro; tegminibus posticè olivaceis, disco antice albo, extrorsùm viridi-marginato, introrsùm rufo-marginato; alis hyalinis, albidis, nervis brunneis, basi violascentibus; areâ costali olivaceâ, margine anteriori juxta basin albo, hac internè rufo-marginatâ; abdomine longo, cylindrico; foliolis duobus brevibus; pedibus anticis longioribus, quatuor posticis mediocribus dentatis.
9. P. D. violascens. Pl. VI, fig. 1.
Flavo-viride; mesothorace cylindrico, vix scabro; tegminibus flavo-viridibus, margine anteriori albis; alis violascentibus; areâ costali flavo-viridi, albo-marginatâ; abdomine basi rufo-violascenti, apice flavo-viridi; foliolis duobus filiformibus; pedibus anticis longioribus, intermediis brevibus, femoribus dentatis; posticis longis, femoribus crassis, angulatis, dentatis, lineis elevatis striatis.
Phasma violascens, Leach, Zool. Misc. 1. pl. 9.
10. P. D. roseipenne. Pl. VII, fig. 1.
Viride; mesothorace scabro, anticè angustato in medio carinato, lineis flavis tribus, tegminibus viridibus; alis minoribus roseis; areâ costali viridi basi flavâ; abdomine longo, crasso, viridi, lineis longitudinalibus tribus subflavis; foliolis duobus filiformibus; pedibus mediocribus dentatis; antennis brevioribus.
β. Corpus gracile, abdominis foliola duo minima.... CTENOMORPHA
11. P. C. marginipenne Pl. I, fig. 2.
Olivaceum; maris mesothorace annulis parvis nigris, fœminæ scabro; tegminibus bruneis, margine exteriori albis; alis subhyalinis, albo-brunneis: areâ costali brunneâ juxta basin albo-marginatâ; pedibus spinosis.
12. P. C. spinicolle. Pl. I, fig. 1.
Brunneum; mesothorace scaberrimo; tegminibus brunneis, juxta apicem albo-marginatis; alis hyalinis basi flavo-albidis, margine exteriori nigriscentibus; areâ costali brunneâ, basi sybhyalinâ, apice nigriscenti; pedibus brevibus, dentatis.
B. Tegmina alæque in utroque sexu nullæ.
a. Antennæ longæ, setaceæ.... BACTERIA, Latr.
13. P. B. cœnosum, Hope MSS. Pl. II. fig. 2.
Filiforme, flavo-brunneum; abdominis apice viridi, hypopygio flavo; pedibus longis, hirsutis.
14. P. B. fragile, Hope MSS. Pl. VII. fig. 1.
Filiforme, nigro-viride; capite fasciis duabus albis.
b. Antennæ breves.... BACILLUS, Latr.
15. P. B. brunneum. Pl. VII. fig. 3.
Filiforme, flavo-brunneum; thorace tuberculis parvis, albis; pedibus brevibus, femoribus internè dentatis.
16. P. B. squalidum, Hope MSS. Pl. III. fig. 2.
Subcylindricum, rugosum, brunneo-nigrum, albo mixtum; capite bicorni; mesothorace abdomineque ad apicem in medio carinatis, hoc basi subdepresso et apice compresso; pedibus mediocribus, posticis quatuor externè subdentatis.
Die 8° Julii, 1833.